M. Thulin (1999) Rhamnaceae Flora of Somalia 2: 150-156
Plants trees, shrubs, or woody climbers, often armed with spines. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, usually stipulate. Inflorescences of solitary flowers or paniculate, umbellate, or racemelike. Flowers radially symmetric, usually bisexual, (4-)5-merous; sepals valvate; petals small and hooded, clasping the stamens, rarely absent; stamens alternate with the sepals; intrastaminal discs well-developed; ovaries superior to inferior, with 2-3(-5) cells and 1 basal ovule in each cell; styles 1, stigmas bilobed. Fruits drupes, capsules, or schizocarps.
The family Rhamnaceae includes about 55 genera and 900 species. It is represented in most parts of the world but is most common in tropical and subtropical regions.