Multiple authors (2006) Lamiaceae in Flora of Somalia 3: 308-355
Plants herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees, usually with glands, often fragrant; stems often 4-angled, particularly when young, or terete. Leaves usually opposite and decussate, rarely whorled, sometimes irregularly arranged, simple or digitately or pinnately lobed. Inflorescences thyrselike, spicate, raceme-like, or cymose, sometimes dense and headlike; bracts large and similar to leaves to smaller and more or less distinct; cymes at the same node opposite or rarely ternate sometimes constituting verticillasters, sometimes irregularly arranged, sessile or pedunculate, with 1-many flowers; bracteoles present or absent. Flowers usually bisexual, rarelyy pistillate; calyces usually tubular, persistent, usually enlarging to some extent after flowering, usually 5-lobed, sometimes 2-10(-11)-lobed, radially or bilaterally symmetric; corollas tubular, more or less bilateral, (1-)2-lippedand/or 3- or 5-lobed; stamens 4, 2 long and 2 short, inserted on the corolla tubes, all fertile or posterior pair reduced and sterile; anthers usually with two distinct cells, these sometimes confluet, sometimes only one cell presentl ovaries superior, 4-celled, usually deeply 4-lobed, sometimes oshallowly so or not lobed, with 1 ovule per cell; styles 2-fied, inserted between the lobes of lobed ovaries, or at the top of unlobed ovaries, discs entire or or 4-lobed, usually much larger on one side. Fruits of 4 nutlets sometimes fewer through abortion of 1- nutlets, sometimes the fovary developing into a single fruit; nutlets often becoming mucilaginous upon wetting.
The Lamiaceae family includes about 236 genera and 7200 speces. It is cosmopolitan in warm and temperates parts of the world. Many species are used for their fragrance, ability to add flavor to food, or medicinal qualities,
The above description includes some genera that have traditionally been placed in the Verbenaceae. The genera involved usually have entire to shallowly lobed ovaries that form larger fruits that do not break into separate parts at maturity.
©Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; reproduced with permission.
Global distribution of Lamiaceae.
Note: GBIF records include introduced and cultivated plants. Consequently, the distribution shown often differs from statements about a taxon's native distribution.
Bendiksby, M., L. Thorbek, A.-C. Scheen, C Lindqvist, & O Ryding (2011) An updated phylogeny and classification of Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae. Taxon 60: 471-484. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.602015
Paton, A., M. Mwanyambo, & A. Culham (2018) Phylogenetic study of Plectranthus, Coleus and allies (Lamiaceae): taxonomy, distribution and medicinal use. Botanical Journal Linnaean Society 188:355-376. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boy064.