M. Hedrén and M. Thulin (2006) Flora of Somalia 3: 374-375
Plants herbs or shrubs, rarely trees, sometimes climbing. Leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate, without stipules, simple. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, cymose or compound, often spikelike, or flowers solitary. Calyces usually 4-5 lobed; corollas united, from almost radially symmetric and 5-lobed to clearly bilaterally symmetric and 2- or 1-lipped; stamens usually 2 or 4, inserted on the corolla tube, staminodes sometimes also present; anthers usually 2-celled, opening longitudinally, one cell sometimes wholly or partly above the other; ovary singled, superior, (1-) 2-celled, usually with 2(-10) ovules per cell, each with a strongly modified funiculus [stalk] or hooklike jaculator that functions in flinging out the seeds; style terminal, stigmatic region funnel-shaped or 2-lobed. Fruits loculidal, dehsicent, usually explosively dehiscent, capsules; seeds often becoming mucilaginous when were, usually without endosperm; embryo straight or curved.
The familiy Acanthaceae includes about 191 genera and 4,000-5,000 species (Manzitto-Tripp et al. 2022). It is widespread in tropical regions throughout the world. Many species are grown as ornamentals because of their showy bracts or flowers.